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Swedish name of the diseaseExplanation in English
Andtäppa, andnödShortness of breath
AstmaAsthma A respiratory disease in which spasm and constriction of the bronchial passages and swelling of their mucous lining cause obstruction of breathing, often due to allergy, particularly to dust, animal fur or feathers, molds, and pollen.
Barnkoppor, smittkoppor"Barnkoppor" = child smallpox. The majority of the persons that got smallpox were children. That is why the disease was also called "barnkoppor". See Smallpox
Barnasjukan, Engelska sjukan"Engelska sjukan" (The English disease) = Rickets. Barnasjukan = children's disease Classic rickets, a deficiency disease of children characterized by improper development or hardening of bones, is due to lack of sufficient vitamin D in the diet, or to insufficient ultraviolet radiation from direct sunlight, a lack that prevents conversion of the element 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to vitamin D. The type of skeletal deformities depends largely on the child's age when the vitamin-D deficiency occurs. A child who has not yet learned to walk develops vertebral curvatures; a walking child develops leg curvatures. The British physician Francis Glisson did a very detailed description of the disease. That is way the disease also is called the English disease in some countries. See Rickets.
BarnsängsfeberChildbed fever
Bleksot, blodbrist, järnblodbrist, vitsot, kloros Blek = pale, blod = blood, brist = lack of, vit = white "Blodbrist" = anemia/anaemia The most common type of anemia is iron-deficiency anemia, which occurs when the body's need for iron increases, as during certain periods of childhood and in pregnancy, or when there is insufficient iron in the diet. Common among teenage girls. Also called green sickness.
BlesseradWounded (in war)
BlodförgiftningBlood-poisoning (septicemia) Infection of the blood, generally caused either by the presence in the blood of microorganisms or of toxins produced by body cells
Blodkoppor, svartkopporBlod = blood, svart = black, koppor = pustules or pox (as in smallpox) A disease with severe bleeding pustules.
Brottfälling, brottfall, fallandesjuka, epilepsi.Epilepsy. See "Fallandesjuka" below
Brännkoppor, vattkopporChickenpox An extremely contagious viral disease, chiefly of children, characterized by early fever, an eruption of papules and vesicles, and mild constitutional disturbances. In most cases, fever is present 24 hours before the eruption appears. The eruption comes out on the face, scalp, or shoulders in crops of red, widely scattered vesicles, spreading slowly over the body, one crop maturing while another is appearing.
BröstfeberPleurisy, pneumonia See "Håll och stygn" below.
Brösthäfta, bröstklämma, bröstkovShortness of breath
Bröstskärv, engelska sjukanRickets, See "Engelska sjukan" above
BrösttäppaShortness of breath
Bröstvärk, flussA bronchial type of disease, no fever but coughing and hoarseness. If the diseased got a fever the disease would be "feberfluss" or "bröstfeber".
Difteri, halssjukaDiphtheria. A serious infectious disease, affecting children particularly, caused by a bacterium that attacks the membranes of the throat and releases a toxin that damages the heart and the nervous system. The main symptoms are fever, weakness, and severe inflammation of the affected membranes. The first case in Sweden was discovered around 1750.
Digerdöden, pesten, svarta pestenThe Black Death, plague. A 14th century plague epidemic: the bubonic plague epidemic that killed over 50 million people throughout Asia and Europe in the 14th century. Black probably from the color of the buboes.
Dragsjuka, krampsjukaKramp = cramp, spasm A disease with cramp and spasm. When the diseased get the bouts he will be delirious and wild with rage. Common symptoms are also diarrhea and speckles on the skin. The disease is caused by a mould parasite, in Swedish called "mjöldryga" (ergot). The parasite is common on corn/grain and the fungus are causing a disease with toxic symptoms.
Dröppel / GonorréGonorrhea (US) / gonorrhoea (UK); venereal or genital disease: a sexually transmitted disease that causes inflammation of the genital mucous membrane, burning pain when urinating, and a discharge.
DysenteriDysentery A disease of the lower intestine: the disease of the lower intestine caused by infection with bacteria, protozoa, or parasites and marked by severe diarrhea, inflammation, and the passage of blood and mucus
Engelska sjukan, rakitis, risRickets. A bone-softening disease: a disease, especially of children, caused by a deficiency in vitamin D that makes the bones become soft and prone to bending and structural change. Technical name rachitis.
FallandesjukaEpilepsy, Falling sickness A medical disorder of the brain: a medical disorder involving episodes of abnormal electrical discharge in the brain and characterized by periodic sudden loss or impairment of consciousness, often accompanied by convulsions
Flen, magflen"Flen" is many different types of stomach diseases (stomach ache) or pain in the chest/thorax.
Fläcktyfus / FläckfeberTyphus fever Infectious fever: an infectious disease that causes fever, severe headaches, a rash, and often delirium. It is spread by ticks and fleas carried by rodents.
Franska sjukan, fransosen, syfilisSyphilis, French pox - venereal disease Sexually transmitted disease: a serious sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirally twisted bacterium that affects many body organs and parts, including the genitals, brain, skin, and nervous tissue. Also called lues.
Frossa "Frossa" is not a name of a disease but rather a condition where the diseased "have the shivers" together with a heavy fever. One disease with those symptoms is malaria and "frossa" was sometimes used as a name for malaria.
Fältsjuka"Fältsjuka" = field disease (military) = camp fever, normally dysentery or typhus fever.This was a group name of diseases that often infected soldiers when large amount of troopers were gathered together. Lack of hygiene and sanitation in those days caused many infectious diseases. The disease spread very quickly if, for example, sewage disposal and human waste came in contact with water supplies. Throughout all wars before the 20th century field diseases have killed more soldiers than the battles. Normally the field disease was typhus fever (fläckfeber) or dysentery (rödsot). In the Navy these types of diseases were called the Navy Disease (marinsjukan) or the Ship Disease/Ship fever (skeppsjukan)??
FörstoppningConstipation Constipation, infrequent or difficult bowel movements characterized by dry, hardened feces.
GiktGout A disease causing swollen joints: a metabolic disorder mainly affecting men in which excess uric acid is produced and deposited in the joints, causing painful swelling, especially in the toes and feet
Hetsig feberA condition with fever and an inflammation. This could many diseases, from influenza to pneumonia.
Håll och stygn (sting)Pleurisy or pneumonia Pleurisy: inflammation of pleura: inflammation of the membrane ( pleura ) surrounding the lungs, usually involving painful breathing, coughing, and the buildup of fluid in the pleural cavity Pneumonia: inflammation of the lung: an inflammation of one or both lungs, usually caused by infection from a bacterium or virus or, less commonly, by a chemical or physical irritant (lung fever)
Kallbrand, benrötaGangrene Death of tissue: local death and decay of soft tissues of the body as a result of lack of blood to the area. It has various causes, including extreme heat or cold, obstruction of blood vessels by disease or a blood clot, or a neurological disorder.
KikhostaWhooping-cough A common name applied to an acute, infectious disease of the respiratory tract. The disease, known medically as pertussis, is characterized in its late stages by a deep cough ending in a peculiar high-pitched whooping sound. Infection is transmitted by direct contact, usually by means of droplets sprayed into the air during coughing spells. Most cases occur in children under five years of age, with children less than one year old being the most seriously affected.
KoleraCholera. An acute and often fatal intestinal disease that produces severe diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and gastric pain, and is usually caused by swallowing food or water contaminated with a bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The death rate was in earlier times about 50%. Sweden was hit by cholera several times during the 19th century. One of the most serious epidemics was in 1853.
Kolik, rev, bukrevColic, A severe abdominal pain, a symptom of several disorders. When arising in the intestine, it is characterized by spasmodic and irregular contractions of the muscular coat of the intestines. Intestinal colic is often caused by infection, obstruction, irritating food, or purgative medicine. The symptoms of colic are often confused with those of appendicitis and peritonitis.
Kräfta, cancerCancer
Lungsot, hekti, bröstilska, bröstsjuka, lungröta, tvinsot, trånsjuka.TB, tuberculosis. Tubercle-forming disease: an infectious disease that causes small rounded swellings ( tubercles ) to form on mucous membranes, especially a disease pulmonary tuberculosis that affects the lungs
Malaria, frossa, flussfeber, augustifeber.Malaria. Recurring illness transmitted by mosquitoes: an infectious disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Common in hot countries, the disease is characterized by recurring chills and fever. Also called marsh fever Malaria was common in Sweden in the mid 1700s'. But epidemics have happened as late as the beginning of the 20th century.
MässlingenMeasles, An acute, highly contagious, fever-producing disease caused by a filterable virus. It is different from the virus that causes the less serious disease German measles, or rubella. Measles is characterized by small red dots appearing on the surface of the skin, irritation of the eyes (especially on exposure to light), coughing, and a runny nose. Measles was formerly one of the most common childhood diseases.
NervfeberTyphoid fever See typhoid.
Pest, böldpest, bubonpestPlague Epidemic disease: a disease that spreads very rapidly, infecting very large numbers of people and killing a great many of them. Sweden had its largest epidemic between 1710 and 1712. Victims of contagious epidemic diseases were isolated in special hospital houses or quarantine houses normally called pest houses.
Pleuresi, plöresi, lungsäcks- och lunginflammation, håll och stygn i bröstet. See Pleurisy
RisA group name of different childhood diseases often caused by want of proper care, loss of weight due to undernourishment etc. Other Swedish names are älta, ältfrossa, skerva.
Ros, rosfeber, rosvässlan, fiskenErysipelas, fishhandlers disease A contagious and infectious skin disease, also affecting the subcutaneous tissue, characterized by inflammation of the diseased areas, with accompanying redness and swelling. Erysipelas is sometimes epidemic and is often caused by infection of wounds. Erysipelas is caused by a bacterium, the Group A streptococcus, and first appears as a red patch raised above the normal surface of the skin. The most common starting point of the infection is the face. The redness spreads, with older areas fading as the new areas extend.
Rödsot, dysenteriDysentery. A disease of the lower intestine: the disease of the lower intestine caused by infection with bacteria, protozoa, or parasites and marked by severe diarrhea, inflammation, and the passage of blood and mucus. In most cases of "fältsjuka" - field disease (camp fever) it was "rödsot" / dysentery that was the real disease.
RötaDecay of tissue Pathological changes due to inflammatory disintegration, purulence, gangrene and putrefaction in bodily tissues (necrosis) and fluids.
Rötfeber, brännsjukaDifferent epidemic fever diseases. "Röta" as in "rötfeber" means putrefaction. "Feber" = fever. A group name of different epidemic fevers such as typhoid fever or typhus fever or blood poisoning. The name "rötfeber" arose due to blood in a dissolved condition, and the diseases were characterized by victims with sickeningly bad breath.
ScharlakansfeberScarlet fever, scarlatina An infectious disease, caused by group A hemolytic streptococci, which also causes strep throat. The organism causing the disease usually enters the body through the nose or mouth. It is transmitted from person to person by direct contact. The disease most commonly affects children between the ages of two and ten. A characteristic skin eruption appears on the chest and usually spreads over the entire body except the face. The rash fades on pressure.
SkärvanA group name of different stomach diseases, in abdominal region.
SkörbjuggScurvy A disease caused by vitamin deficiency: a disease caused by insufficient vitamin C, the symptoms of which include spongy gums, loosening of the teeth, and bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes A common disease among seamen. The Vikings did cure the disease with herbs that turned out to contain vitamin C. Redan vikingarna förstod att motverka och bota den med örter som visat sig innehålla C-vitamin .
Slag, slaganfall, slagfluss, nervslag och lungslag.Stroke, cerebral hemorrhage or stroke; fit of apoplexy caused by brain hemorrhage.
SmittkopporSmallpox. An acute viral disease: a highly contagious disease caused by a poxvirus and marked by high fever and the formation of scar-producing pustules. A worldwide inoculation program has virtually eradicated the smallpox virus from the human population. Vaccination for smallpox became compulsory in Sweden in 1816.
Sockersjuka, diabetesDiabetes ("sockersjuka" = sugar sickness) A disease caused by defective carbohydrate metabolism and characterized by abnormally large amounts of sugar in the blood and urine.
Spanska sjukanThe Spanish flu An epidemic influenza. The Spanish flu of 1918 is one the most destructive epidemic of modern times. The symptoms was high fever, cough, pain in the eyes and ears, pain in the lumbar region, headache, sore throat, weakness, coating, feeling of sickness, irregular pulse. The disease was an influenza, but a very severe one. This flue is estimated to have caused 20 million deaths; in the U.S. about 500,000 persons died, generally following the complication of bacterial pneumonia. More then 35,000 persons died in Sweden in the Spanish flu between 1918 and 1919. The epidemic was first reported in Spain, that is how the disease got its name.
TorskThrush. A fungal infection characterized by creamy-white, curdlike patches on the tongue and other mucosal surfaces of the mouth. The disease is caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans, a species of yeast that normally inhabits the mucous membranes as a benign saprophyte. When the curdlike discharge is removed from patches of thrush, raw and bleeding areas are visible and can be especially painful. Also called candida In some cases herpes simplex could have been diagnosed as "torsk" and in some rare cases as diphtheria.
Tuberkulos, TBC, Tvinsot, lungsot, tvärsotTB, tuberculosis. Tubercle-forming disease: a chronic or acute bacterial infection that primarily attacks the lungs, but which may also affect the kidneys, bones, lymph nodes, and brain. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a rod-shaped bacterium. Symptoms of TB include coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, chills, and fatigue. Children and people with weakened immune systems are the most susceptible to TB. Half of all untreated TB cases are fatal.
Tyfoidfeber, nervfeber, paratyfus, tarmtyfusTyphoid Fever (Typhus abdominalis) An acute infectious disease caused by the typhoid bacillus Salmonella typhi. The bacillus is transmitted by milk, water, or solid food contaminated by feces of typhoid victims or of carriers, that is, healthy persons who harbor typhoid bacilli without presenting symptoms. The first symptoms are chills followed by high fever and prostration. Victims may also experience headache, cough, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Tyfus; fläckfeber, fläcktyfus, återfallsfeber Typhus Typhus is a common name for a group of three acute infectious diseases of humans caused by rickettsial bodies. These diseases are epidemic louse-borne typhus; Brill-Zinsser disease; and endemic, or murine (flea-borne) typhus.Epidemic louse-borne typhus (typhus exanthematicus) = "fläcktyfus / fläckfeber": Also called European, or classic, typhus, this is the most virulent of the three diseases and has occurred in widespread epidemics during wartime or other periods when sanitation has not been strictly observed. It occurs chiefly in temperate countries and is commonly known as jail fever, famine fever, putrid fever, hospital fever, camp fever, or ship fever. Symptoms appear about ten days after the victim has been bitten by an infected body louse, and they include high fever, pain in the muscles and joints, stiffness, headache, and cerebral disturbance. About the fifth day of the disease, a dark-red rash of elevated spots breaks out on the trunk and shoulders and then spreads to the rest of the body. During the second week of the disease, the patient often becomes delirious. After two to three weeks, patients may undergo a sudden remission of fever with prompt recovery. In severe epidemics, however, the mortality rate is often as high as 50 to 70 percent, with death occurring within two weeks. During World War I, 150,000 soldiers died of epidemic typhus. During World War II protective vaccination and control of lice with DDT resulted in a much lower incidence of typhus among military personnel. Endemic Flea-borne Typhus This form of the disease, also called murine, or tropical, typhus, is relatively mild. Caused by R. typhi, it occurs in tropical and semitropical countries. Endemic typhus is transmitted by the rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis. Rat fleas attack humans secondarily, in that their primary host is the common brown rat. The symptoms of endemic flea-borne typhus are much less severe than those of epidemic typhus. In earlier times there were three types of typhus: 1. Typhoid Fever: Nervfeber, tarmtyfus, tyfoidfeber (see above) 2. Epidemic louse-borne typhus: Fläckfeber, fläcktyfus, krigstyfus, hungertyfus 3. Brill-Zinsser Disease: Återfallsfeber (see below)
VarfeberSee Blood poisoning.
Vattensot"Vattensot" is a general term for diseases causing edema, accumulation of excess fluid in any body tissue, cavity, or organ, except bone. There are three types of "vattensot"; "Hudvattensot", "Bröstvattensot" and "Hjärnvattensot".Accumulation in the pleural cavity is called pleural effusion or "Bröstvattensot"; in the cranium, hydrocephalus or "Hjärnvattensot"; and in the abdominal cavity, ascites or "Hudvattensot". Generalized edema is referred to as anasarca. Major causes are heart or kidney failure, low blood serum protein after starvation or liver failure, shock, and impaired return of blood from extremities.
VattkopporChickenpox An extremely contagious viral disease, chiefly of children, characterized by early fever, an eruption of papules and vesicles, and mild constitutional disturbances. In most cases, fever is present 24 hours before the eruption appears. The eruption comes out on the face, scalp, or shoulders in crops of red, widely scattered vesicles, spreading slowly over the body, one crop maturing while another is appearing. Chicken pox is rarely a dangerous disease in otherwise healthy children. It can be life threatening, however, in children with a defective immune response due to a disease.
Vattuskräck, rabiesRabies. Severe viral disease: an often fatal viral disease that affects the central nervous systems of most warm-blooded animals and is transmitted in the saliva of an infected animal. It causes convulsions, inability to move, and strange behavior.
Ålderdomsbräcklighet/ ÅlderdomssvaghetInfirmities of old age
ÅterfallsfeberBrill-Zinsser Disease (typhus recurrens) Also called recrudescent typhus, this is another form of typhus caused by R. prowazeki. Victims of epidemic typhus who have recovered may harbor the rickettsia in their bodies, especially in the lymph nodes. Several years later they may experience a type of relapse. Lice may feed on the bodies of these recovered victims and then infect other people; the disease may also be transmitted without the presence of lice, as by physical contact. Brill-Zinsser disease is milder than the initial epidemic typhus.
AdelsfananCavalry Corps of the Nobility
Adjutant (mil.)Adjutant, a military position, normally held by an [commissioned] officer. Adjutant is an officer assisting a higher ranked officer. This position was introduced in the beginning of the 1700's and was then manned by non-commissioned officers, NCOs. The post as an adjutant got an officer's rank in 1734 but then with a salary of a NCO. For example, a Lieutenant could be an adjutant to a Colonel.
AnfallCharge - attack, assault
Arklimästare, artillerietAn arklimästare in the artillery was in charge of an artillery depot, i.e. the artillery pieces and ammunition. The word “arkli” actually means arms depot. Today the term tygförråd is used instead of arkli. There were also a national arklimästare in charge of all the arms depots. His title was Överstearklimästare (Colonel arklimästare). Later his title became Rikstygmästare.
Arklimästare, flottanA navy arklimästare was a NCO working with the sea artillery onboard the ships. It was the lowest NCO rank in the sea artillery and he was responsible for the loading and aiming of a certain number of artillery pieces. This rank was in use until 1824.
Armén The Army
Arméfördelning Army division
Arméns FlottaThe Army Fleet
ArtilleriThe Artillery
ArtilleristA soldier in the Artillery
AvskedDischarge from the Army, Navy etc
BataljonBattalion, Infantry unit of 600 soldiers (4 companies)
BataljonschefBattalion Commander
BataljonsstabBattalion headquarters
Beväringen"Beväringen" was a forerunner to the National Service System. Every male between the age of 21 to 25 was required to serve in the military. The first muster for the "beväringen" was held in 1813.
Beväring A person called up for military service within the “Beväringen” was called a “beväring”. The word “beväring” could be abbreviated to “bev”.
BlankvapenEdged weapons
BrigadgeneralBrigadier (UK) / Brigadier General (USA). An Army military rank - [commissioned] officer.
Båtsman"Båtsmän" was the Swedish name of the navy seamen provided by the Allotment System. The "båtsmän" was provided in the same manner as the soldiers in the Army, that is through the "rote" farmers. The "båtsmän" were deck hands doing all sorts of duties plus manning the guns during battle. Generally you could say that the "båtsmän" were low in rank and duties. It is difficult to find English translation of the title "Båtsman". They were a type of seamen serving onboard the Navy ships as explained above. The special thing about the "båtsmän" was the way they were provided - recruited - trained. The title seaman is not incorrect but "seaman" doesn't pin point this special type of seaman the "båtsmän" were. A direct translation would be boatsman, however there is no such seaman title in the English language. It is one "båtsman" but two "båtsmän".
BåtsmanshållA term used for the Navy part of the Allotment System. This was the system of recruiting and maintaining the båtsmän by "rote" farmers.
BåtsmanstorpBåtsman's croft (provided for the Navy seamen of the allotted Navy companies)
DistinktionskorpralCorporal, a lower military rank. The rank of Distinktionskorpral was used between 1858 and 1914 when it was replaced with the reintroduced rank of Furir (Sergeant). Between 1858 and 1914 the Distinktionskorpral was the highest rank among the lower NCO:s. normally a corporal with many service years was promoted to Distinktionskorpral (First Corporal?).
DrabantkårenGarde du Corps
DragonDragoon: Dragoon was formerly mounted infantry. They traveled on horseback to the battlefield but they fought as foot soldiers. As mounted infantry they were very mobile units. It happened that dragoons fought as cavalry in battles. However, this was a type of warfare they weren't trained for and could end up in disaster. During the 18th century the dragoons were more and more used as cavalry and therefore also trained as cavalry. Finally it was only the name that separated them from other cavalry. During the 19th century dragoons was a term for heavy cavalry.
FanjunkareMilitary rank (non-commissioned officer, NCO) in the Swedish Army (Master Sergeant). A military rank introduced in 1833 when it replaced the former fältväbel. Fanjunkare was the highest NCO rank until 1945 when a new rank, Förvaltare became a rank above Fanjunkare. Fanjunkare was used för staff NCO:s until 1983.
FlintlåsmuskötFlintlock musket
FotjägareRifleman (infantry). Riflemen were specially trained infantry soldiers.
FlottanThe Navy
FlotteskaderNavy squadron
Fotfolk (military term)Soldiers at Foot or foot soldiers (infantry)
FredsföredragPeace treaty
FredsvillkorPeace terms
FregattFrigate (midsize man of war)
FurirMilitary rank ("underofficer" = non-commissioned officer, NCO) in the Swedish Army until 1875 when this rank was replaced with Fanjunkare. The rank of Furir was reintroduced in 1914 but now as a lower rank (underbefäl) corresponding to the English/American rank of sergeant. In former days the Furir’s responsibility was to choose the company campsite. He also received the company food supplies and distributed it to the soldiers.
FältartilleriField artillery
FältherreCommander, general
FältjägareRifleman. Riflemen were specially trained infantry soldiers.
FältmarskalkField Marshal
FältprästArmy chaplain, clergy
Fältsjuka"Fältsjuka" = field disease (military) = camp fever, normally dysentery or typhus fever. This was a group name of diseases that often infected soldiers when large amount of troopers was gathered together. Lack of hygiene and sanitation in those days caused many infectious diseases. The disease spread very quickly if, for example, sewage disposal and human waste came in contact with water supplies. Throughout all wars before the 20th century field diseases have killed more soldiers than the battles.Normally the field disease was typhus fever (fläckfeber) or dysentery (rödsot).In the Navy these types of diseases were called the Navy Disease (marinsjukan) or the Ship Disease/Ship fever (skeppsjukan)
Fältskär / barberareMilitary surgeon
FältväbelMilitary rank (non-commissioned officer, NCO) in the Swedish Army (Master Sergeant). In former days the Swedish Fältväbel’s responsibility was to line up the troops before a battle and he had the right to punish the company soldiers if they misbehaved. It was normally a fältväbel who held a position as the quartermaster-sergeant (kompanikvartermästare). The rank Fältväbel was used in the Swedish Army until 1833 when it was replaced with the rank Fanjunkare.
FänrikSecond Lieutenant, a military rank - [commissioned] officer. Fänrik was used in the Swedish Army until 1835 when it was replaced with the rank Underlöjtnat. The rank of Fänrik was reintroduced in 1937. In former days the Fänrik was in charge of the company colors during combat.
FästningFortress, fort
FörareMilitary rank (non-commissioned officer, NCO) in the Swedish Army (Master Sergeant). A ”förare” was in charge of the company colors. Before a battle he handed the company colors to the Second Lieutenant who was in charge of the company colors during combat. The “förare” was also in charge of the company’s wounded and sick plus the company baggage, clearing the march route etc. He was also an assistant to the Second Lieutenant. The rank Förare was used in the Swedish Army until the beginning of the 1800's.
Förlust / nederlagDefeat
FörstärkningsmanskapetReinforcement troopers
FörsvarslinjeLine of defense
FörvaltareMilitary rank (non-commissioned officer, NCO) in the Swedish Army (Sergeant Major). A military rank introduced in 1945 and was used until 1972. The NCo rank Fanjunkare had an official standing between Lieutenant and Captain.
GalärflottanThe Galley Fleet, see the Army Fleet
GatloppGauntlet, to run the gauntlet; A military disciplinary punishment where the soldier to be disciplined was stripped to the waist and forced to run between two lines of soldiers equipped with sticks, receiving a blow from each soldier’s stick. The number of soldiers in the lines depended of the crime committed and could vary between 100 and 300. The number of times the soldier had to run the gauntlet also varied and could be repeated for several days. In Sweden the gauntlet was abolished as a military punishment in 1812.
GeneralmönsterrullaGeneral Muster roll
GeneralmönstringGeneral Muster
GradbeteckningMilitary rank insignia.
GrenadjärA grenadier was originally a soldier armed with hand grenades. The grenadier first fired his musket and then he would light the fuse of the grenade and throw it. The next move was to charge the enemy with the bayonet mounted on the musket. In each company there were 12 grenadiers. The grenadiers were the first to be equipped with bayonets (beginning of the 18tn century). They were also equipped with a kind of grenade rifles. Later when the range of fire of the muskets increased the role of the grenadier changed. In stead the best grenadiers formed an elite unit. The grenadiers wore a special hat. At the end of the 18th century the grenadier units became ordinary infantry units.
HandelsflottanThe Merchant Navy
HjullåsmuskötWheellock musket
HusarHussar (a type of cavalry): Hussars was first a term for The Hungarian heavy cavalry. Hussar regiments were established in Sweden during the 1700's. They were armed with sabers and carbines (short rifles).
HästjägareMounted rifleman. Mounted riflemen were specially trained cavalry soldiers.
IndelningsverketThe Allotment System, the system of organizing and financing the Swedish armed forces in earlier times (1682 - 1901).
Indelta regementenAllotted regiments, regiments organized within the Allotment System
Indelt soldatAllotted soldier, soldier recruited within the Allotment System
InfanteriThe Infantry
InfanteristInfantryman, soldier
InskrivenEnrolled or registered as in "enrolled in the Army". The word “inskriven” could be abbreviated to “inskr”.
JägarförbandSpecial elite units of riflemen. The first jägar corps in Sweden was established in 1745 when Savolaks jägarkår (kår = corps) was founded. The mission of the jägar units was to advance in front of the infantry in extended order to reconnaissance and fight the enemy. Fältjägare are riflemen by foot and hästjägare are mounted riflemen. A lot more jägar units were established in the beginning of the 1800’s. These units were also specialized to combat in wasteland and in forests. Later the extended order became regular practice by the infantry and the importance of the jägare units diminished. In the 1900’s “jägare” became a term used for special elite units. So, now days “jägare” is a collective name for elite units, for example Fältjägare (riflemen) and fjälljägare (mountain riflemen or highlanders), kustjägare (soldiers in the amphibious corps – like the Marines), fallskärmsjägare (paratroopers) etc.
KanonGun, cannon
Kapten (Armén)Army Captain, a military rank - [commissioned] officer. The captain was the Company Commander.
Kapten (Flottan)Navy military rank - [commissioned] officer. The rank of a "kapten" corresponds to a Navy Lieutenant in the UK and USA.
KaptensboställeA officer's residence provided for a captain within the Allotment System
KaptenlöjtnantKaptenlöjtnant, a military rank - [commissioned] officer. A army rank used until 1833 and a Kaptenlöjtnant (Lieutenant Captain) held a rank between Lieutenant and Captain. A Kaptenlöjtnant was normally the company commander of the Life Company, the company who the Colonel formally was in charge of.
KarolinA Carolean soldier. Name of the soldiers during the regime of King Karl XI and King Karl XII (1660 - 1721).
KavalleriThe Cavalry The term "cavalry" wasn't in use until around the 1650's. In Sweden the cavalry was called "rytteriet" (the riders or the horsemen) prior to that time. For example Smålands ryttare and Upplands ryttare (ryttare = horsemen).
KavalleristHorseman in the cavalry. The same as "ryttare"
Klart skepp (mil)General quarters (naval term)
KnektInfantry soldier
Kofferdimatros"Kofferdimatroser" were professional seamen drafted from the merchant navy. They were in charge of all the work that had to do with the actual sailing (with the help of the "båtsmän"). The “kofferdimatroser” were enlisted and had a personal contract with the Navy. They were paid in cash and had to serve in the Navy for 6 month per year. Rest of the year they served on merchant ships.
KompaniCompany, an infantry unit of 150 soldiers
KompaniofficerCompany officer. A generic term for the ranks of Captain (“Kapten”), First Lieutenant (“Löjtnant”) and Second Lieutenant (“Fänrik”).
Kommendör (Flottan)Navy military rank - [commissioned] officer. The rank of a "Kommendör" corresponds to a Navy Captain in the UK and USA.
Kommendörkapten (Flottan)Navy military rank - [commissioned] officer. The rank of a "Kommendörkapten" corresponds to a Navy Commander in the UK and USA.
KornettKornett, a military rank - [commissioned] officer. Kornett is an old military rank used in the Swedish Cavalry corresponding to Second Lieutenant in the US. The rank "Kornett" corresponds today to the rank of "Fänrik".
KorpralCorporal, a lower military rank.
KorpralsboställeA soldier's croft provided for a corporal within the Allotment System
KorpralskapEach company had 6 "korpralskap" of 24 soldiers and one corporal, in total 25 men (Corporalship?).
KrigsarkivetWar Archive / Swedish Military Record Office
Krigsfartyg / ÖrlogsfartygWar ship, Man of war
KrigsfångePrisoner of war
KrigsmaktenThe Armed forces
KrigsrättCourt Martial
Kungl. or kungligaRoyal
Kvartermästare (kompani- kvartermästare )A military position (non-commissioned officer, NCO) in the Swedish Army (Quartermaster Sergeant). A NCO with the responsability to prepare a company's quarter and provision. There were both a company Quartermasters and a regimental Quartermaster.
Kvartermästare (regements- kvartermästare)Military position (commissioned officer) in the Swedish Army (Quartermaster). An officer with the responsability to prepare a regiment's quarter and provision. There were both a company Quartermasters and a regimental Quartermaster.
[[Kyrassiär]]Cuirassier: The Cuirassiers were the heavy cavalry. The name originates from cuirass, which was the name of the armored protection they wore. During the 17th century it became too ungainly (too awkward) to wear a full cuirass. Instead a light cuirass came into use plus a helmet instead of the older full head protection. The cuirassiers were armed with a rapier (sword) and a handgun. Fully equipped cuirassiers were quite heavy so they needed large horses to carry them. During the 19th century the cuirassier regiments didn't differ from other cavalry.
KölhalningTo be keelhauled, a punishment in the Navy. When a seaman was to be keelhauled he was fastened to two ropes, one to his hands and one to his feet. Then he was hauled under the ship’s keel from one side to the other. When he passed the keel his arms or legs (or neck) often were broken by the keel. Keelhauling was almost the same as a sentence to death. This type of punishment was abolished in the Swedish Navy in 1755.
LinjeskeppShip of the line (larger man of war)
Livbataljon The 1st battalion in each Regiment was called the Life Battalion.
Livgardet till fot The Foot Life Guards
Livgardet till hästMounted Life Guards
LivkompaniThe 1st Company in each Regiment was called the Life Company or the LifeGuard Company.
LuntlåsmuskötMatchlock musket
LöjtnantLieutenant, a military rank - [commissioned] officer (in the US First Lieutenant). Deputy to the Company Commander.
MajorMajor, a military rank - [commissioned] officer. A rank immediatly above Captain. In the middle of the 1700's the rank "Andre Major" or Sekundmajor (Second Major) was introduced. These officers had the rank of a major but received a salary of a Captain. During the 1800's a full major were also called "Förste Major" or Premiärmajor (First Major). In the 1800's there was also a rank "Tredje Major" (Third major).
ManskapPrivate soldiers, rank and file
Menig soldatPrivate soldier
Miltära grader, gradbeteckningarMilitary ranks
Miltärmusiker Regimental bandsman
MuskötMusket (rifle)
MusköterareInfantry soldiers armed with muskets
MönsterskrivareMilitary position (non-commissioned officer, NCO) in the Swedish Army (Company scribe / Company clerk). A Mönsterskrivare was a NCO who was in charge of the rolls/lists (roll keeping, accounts and other desk-work). The Mönsterskrivare held a rank equal to the highest NCO rank. The number of Mönsterskrivare was reduced in the 1700's and 1800's and was abolished in 1875.
MönstringMuster, inspection, enrollment
Niosvansad katt Cat-o'nine-tails. A punishment tool in the Navy. A "Niosvansad katt" was a knout which consisted of a rope where the end of the rope where separated into nine thongs or lashes, each of them equipped with 3 knots.
OfficerOfficer, a military rank - [commissioned] officer. A generic term for the military ranks from Second Lieutenant/Ensign and above.
PikPike, during the Great Nordic War (1700 - 1721) a 1/3 of the soldiers in each company were armed with pikes while 2/3 were armed with muskets.
PikenerareInfantry soldiers armed with pikes
PiparePiper, a regimental bandsman, playing the pipe
Profoss (mil.)Provost, a military position (non-commissioned officer, NCO). The full title was regementsprofoss, which later changed to regementsväbel. The provost supervised the order among the soldiers and executed punishments. The military punishment could be anything from death penalty to arrest, whipping/flogging or to run the gauntlet. Normally the provost had three assistant provosts (gemena profosser). A higher ranked provost (generalprofoss) was the provost marshal. There have also been civilian provosts.
RegementsofficerRegimental officer (the regimental staff). A generic term for the ranks of Major (“Major”), Lieutenant Colonel (“Översteöjtnant”) and Colonel (“Överste”).
RegementsskrivareMilitary position (commissioned officer) in the Swedish Army (Regimental scribe). A Regementsskrivare was an officer who was in charge of the accounts and the correspondence). The Regementsskrivare was a part of the regemental staff.
RegementstabenThe regimental staff
Regementsprofoss / RegementsväbelSee profoss (provost) above.
Rote (militär rote)Rote - Military ward, a subdivision of the Allotment system. The farmers within each "rote" had to provide one soldier to the regiment of that province. In return the farmers were exempted from having to serve as a soldier (as long as they provided a soldier).
Rotebonde"Rote" farmer. See also "rote". (pl. rotebönder)
RoteringenA term used for the infantry part of the Allotment System. That is the way the infantry soldiers were recruited and maintained by "rote" farmers.
RullaRoll, list
RusthållA term used for the cavalry part of the Allotment System. That is the way the horsemen were recruited and maintained by the "rusthållare". A "rusthåll" was the correspondence to a "rote" in the infantry.
RusthållareA "rusthållare" was the correspondence to a "rote farmer" in the infantry. However there were a mojor difference, the farmer in a cavalry "rusthåll" had a personal contract with the Crown stating that he had to provide a cavalryman, horse and uniform. The contract was a voluntary agreement between the crown and the proprietor of an independent farm.
RustmästareMilitary rank (non-commissioned officer, NCO) in the Swedish Army until 1835. The rank of was also used between 1957 and 1972 but now as a lower rank NCO (underbefäl). In former days the Rustmästare was in charge of the ammunition and handed the ammo to the soldiers according to the orders. He also had the responsibility to inspect the soldiers’ muskets and see to that the soldiers were clean and ready for duty.
RyttareHorseman in the cavalry
RyttartorpHorsman's croft (provided for the cavalry horsemen of the allotted regiments)
RytterietThe cavalry
RyttmästareAn army Captain in the cavalry. A military rank - [commissioned] officer.
SabelbaljaSaber sheath
SergeantMilitary rank (non-commissioned officer, NCO) in the Swedish Army. A Swedish sergeant corresponds to a Staff Sergeant in the UK and USA. In former days the Swedish Sergeant was in rank just below the fältväbel (Master Sergeant). His responsibilities were very much the same as the fältväbel but he had no right to punish the soldiers. The Swedish rank Furir corresponds to the US Sergeant.
SjöslagNaval (sea) battle
SkvadronSquadron in the Cavalry
SkärgårdsflottanThe Archipelago Fleet
SlagfältBattlefield, battle scene/site
SlaglåsgevärPercussion lock rifle
SlagordningOrder of Battle
Slutstycke (i skjutvapen)Bolt (firearms)
SnapplåsgevärSnaphaunce lock rifle
SoldatedSoldier's creed
SoldatkontraktSoldier's contract
SoldatnamnSoldier's name. Every soldier were assigned a special soldier's name when they were recruited. See also: Naming practices in Sweden
SoldattorpSoldier's croft (provided for the soldiers of the allotted regiments)
SpeletThe regimental (music) band
StabenThe staff
StabsofficerStaff officer
Strid, drabbning, batalj, slagBattle
StridskolonnCombat column
StridsgrupperingCombat formation
StridslarmBattle noice
StridslinjeBattle line
Stridsområde Battle area
Stridsskada Battle casualty
Stridsvan Battle hardened
StupadKilled in action
Ständiga knekthålletAnother word for the infantry part of the Allotment System (Ständiga = permanent, Knekt = infantry soldier.). Also called "roteringen".
TjänstegradMilitary rank
TjänstgöringService, duty
TjänsteställningMilitary position. For example, Regimental Commander is a position normally held by an officer with the rank of colonel.
TillfångatagenCaptured in action
TrumslagareDrummer, a regimental bandsman
TruppbefälOfficer of the line
Träffen; Andra träffenBefore each battle the opposing armies lined up in rows facing each other. The second row was called "Andra träffen"
Träffen; Första träffenBefore each battle the opposing armies lined up in rows facing each other. The first row was called "första träffen"
TvåfrontskrigWar on two fronts
UnderbefälA lower ranked Non Commissioned Officer, NCO (petty officer). A generic term for the lowest NCO military ranks .
UnderlöjtnantSecond Lieutenant, a military rank - [commissioned] officer. Underlöjtnant replaced the former rank of Fänrik in 1835 and was used until 1937 when the rank of Fänrik was reintroduced.
UnderofficerNon Commissioned Officer, NCO (warrant officers). A generic term for the military ranks below Second Lieutenant/Ensign.
UtskrivningInvoluntary conscription for the Army
Vapenför, tjänstedugligAble-bodied
VargeringsmanIn wartime the "rote" also had to recruit extra soldiers or reserve soldiers, called "vargeringsman".
Vice KorpralVice Corporal, a military rank below Corporal.
VolontärVolunteer Volunteer was a term used for military personnel being trained to become NCOs or officers. The volunteer system was used both in the Army as well as within the Navy. A volunteer started off as a soldier/seaman but had a higher position or status than the ordinary soldier/seaman.
VärjaRapier / Smallsword
Värnplikt or rather Allmän VärnpliktIn 1901 Sweden reorganized its armed forces and adopted a National Service / Draft Service System ("Allmän Värnplikt") with a Conscript Army ("värnpliktsarmé"). This system is called Allmän Värnplikt in Swedish. Värnplikt really means “An obligation to defend Sweden."
Värnpliktig A person drafted to this National Service System is called Värnpliktig in Swedish. An English translation would be “Draftee”. Värnpliktig (draftee) is abbreviated "vpl".
Värvade regementenEnlisted regiments
Värvade sjömän (flottan)Enlisted “båtsmän”/seamen. They were a kind of “elite” seamen and together with the crew drafted from the merchant navy they performed the more advanced sailing duties onboard the ships.
Värvade soldaterEnlisted soldiers
ÖrlogsbasNavy base
ÖrlogsflottanThe Navy
Örlogskapten (Flottan)Navy military rank - [commissioned] officer. The rank of a "örlogskapten" corresponds to a Navy Lieutenant Commander in the UK and USA.
ÖrlogsstationNavy station
ÖversteColonel, an Army military rank - [commissioned] officer. The Regimental Commander.
ÖverstelöjtnantLieutenant Colonel, an Army military rank - [commissioned] officer. Deputy to the Regimental Commander.
Svedish: -
English: -
Finnish: -

Many of the words in the dictionary still lacks english explanatory text. If you want to assist in entering the explanations, please contact

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